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Millennium Simulation

The Millennium Simulation was run at the Max Planck Society’s Supercomputing Centre in Garching, Germany. The project was led by Professor Volker Springel for the Virgo Consortium. At the time of its publication in 2005, the Millennium simulation was the largest cosmological simulation ever run.


The Millennium tree files accessible here are conveniently packaged to be useable with the Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) code developed by Professor Darren Croton and his team at Swinburne University. SAGE can be found at, while a paper describing the model can be downloaded at Croton et al. (2016).


Access to the full Millennium Simulation can be had via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO): Galaxy formation catalogues build on the Millennium Simulation can be found at the Theoretical Astrophysical Observatory (TAO):



Millennium Simulation

Cosmology: WMAP-1

Cosmological parameters: Ωm = 0.25, ΩΛ = 0.75, Ωb = 0.045, σ8 = 0.9, h = 0.73, n = 1

Box size: 500 Mpc/h

Mass resolution: 8.6×10^8 Msun/h

Force resolution: 5 kpc/h


Please refer to Springel et al. (2005) for the full details of the Millennium Simulation:

Sample data reader 

Data and Resources

Data Portal Metadata

Field Value
Author Darren Croton
Version 1.0
Last Updated March 16, 2017, 19:30 (Australia/Sydney)
Publish Date February 9, 2017, 16:34 (Australia/Sydney)